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Self-justification describes how, when a person encounters cognitive dissonanceor a situation in which a person's behavior is inconsistent with lad casino beliefsthat person tends to justify the behavior and deny source negative feedback associated with the behavior.

The need to justify our actions and decisions, especially the ones inconsistent with our beliefs, comes from the unpleasant feeling called cognitive dissonance.

For lad casino, "smoking will shorten the life which I wish to live for as long as possible" and yet "I smoke three packs a day". Lad casino is bothersome in any circumstance but it is especially painful when an important element of self-concept is threatened. For instance, if the smoker considered himself a healthy person, this would cause a greater deal of dissonance than lad casino he considered himself an unhealthy person because the dissonant action is in direct conflict with an image of himself.

Best casino sweden this case, people who tried to stop smoking but failed start to think that smoking is not harmful as much as they thought. Dissonance can result from an action dissonant with either a negative or positive concept. For example, Aronson [3] showed that students who failed numerous times at a task showed evidence of dissonance when they later succeeded at the same task.

Some even went to the extent http://surrex.info/nj-online-casino-sites.php incorrectly changing answers in order to present a consistent image. Steele [4] argues that the main cause of dissonance is not necessarily the difference between actions and beliefs, but the resulting degradation of self-image.

By not behaving in line with his beliefs, this may threaten his integrity. Researchers have shown that this reaffirmation is actually better at lad casino dissonant feelings if it is in an unrelated area than a related one. For example, if a smoker is experiencing dissonance because he lad casino that smoking is bad for his health, he could reduce his dissonance by reminding himself that lad casino is an environmentally friendly person and does a lot of good in reducing his carbon footprint.

However, a reminder that he is a healthy person who exercises regularly is actually more likely to increase feelings of dissonance. It is possible that people with high self-esteem have more accessible positive thoughts about visit web page that can successfully reduce dissonance.

However, in high threat situations, these positive thoughts are not enough, and high self-esteem people do engage in self-justification strategies. There are two self-justification strategies: Lad casino self-justification refers to a change in the way people perceive their actions. It may be an attitude change, trivialization of the negative consequences or denial of the negative consequences. Internal self-justification helps make the negative outcomes more click at this page and is usually elicited by hedonistic dissonance.

For example, the smoker may 7 planet casino reviews lad casino that smoking is not really that bad for his health.

External self-justification refers to the use of external excuses to justify one's actions. The excuses can be a displacement of personal responsibility, lack of self-control or social pressures.

External self-justification aims to diminish one's responsibility lad casino a behavior and is usually lad casino by moral dissonance. For example, the smoker might say that he only smokes socially and lad casino other people expect him to.

If people have too much external justification for their actions, cognitive dissonance will not occur, and thus, attitude change is unlikely to occur. On the other hand, when people cannot find external justification for their behavior, they must attempt to find internal justification — they reduce dissonance by changing their attitudes or behaviors. The theory of insufficient justification has many applications in education and child rearing. They told a classroom full of preschoolers not to play with an attractive toy, threatening half with a mild punishment and half with a severe punishment if they did play with it, and then left the room.

Lad casino of lad casino children played with the toy. When the researchers came back, they asked the children to rate the attractiveness of the toy. Those who had been threatened with severe punishment still rated it as very attractive; these children had large external justification for not playing with the toy, and so their attitudes had not changed. However, those who had only been threatened with a mild punishment rated the toy as significantly less attractive; without lad casino external justification for not playing with the toy, they had to create internal justifications to reduce their dissonance.

This study can be very useful to parents who use punishment to help teach their children good values. The milder the punishment used, the more children will have to develop internal justification for behaving well. Similarly, if educators want children to internalize their lessons and develop a love of learning, they must help the children find internal justifications for their schoolwork, and minimize externals rewards.

The hypocrisy induction is the arousal of dissonance by having individuals make statements that do not align with their own beliefs, and then lad casino attention to the inconsistencies between what they advocated lad casino their own behaviors, with the overall goal of leading individuals to more responsible behaviors. One group just composed the arguments; the other also recorded lad casino arguments in front of a video camera that they were told was going to be seen by an auditorium of high school students.

Additionally, half the students in each group were made mindful of lad casino own failings to use condoms. Lad casino researchers found that lad casino students who had made the video and thought about their own behaviors — they had the highest level of internal justification and thus the highest dissonance condition learn more here were far more likely lad casino buy condoms afterwards than the students in any other group.

Those who only performed a single action, lad casino composing the written lad casino, were source more easily able to attribute what they lad casino doing to external justification lad casino. Furthermore, they found these results to be steady even several months after the study concluded.

To keep viewing themselves in a positive light, individuals may rationalize unethical or corrupt decision-making using the aforementioned self-justification strategies. In a study on cheating, Mills administered a test to a sixth grade class that was impossible to pass without cheating. He then gave the 6th graders the test without supervision but with a hidden camera in the classroom. He found that the students who did cheat developed this web page more lenient attitude towards cheating while the students who did not cheat developed stronger attitudes against cheating.

After each student decided whether lad casino not to cheat, they justified this decision to make themselves feel good. In order to reduce their cognitive dissonance, the students that did cheat altered their thoughts on cheating: On the other hand, students that did not cheat may have justified a lack of success on the test to: This experiment shows potential dangers of self-justification.

It seems that people who partake in unethical behavior may become slightly more accepting and comfortable with their actions. One major claim of social psychology is that we experience cognitive dissonance every time we make a decision; in an attempt to alleviate this, we then submit to a largely unconscious reduction of dissonance by creating new motives of our decision lad casino that more positively reflect lad casino our self-concept.

This process of reducing cognitive dissonance regarding decision-making relates back to the problem of individual becoming stagnant in a course of action. Furthermore, once an individual makes a decision dissonance has begun. In order to alleviate this dissonance, click at this page or she rationalizes their actions either by changing them, or in this case continuing on in their course of action, perpetuating their qualifying beliefs.

In this case, the question concerns the source of the breakdown of rationale that causes the continuation of such disadvantageous behavior. Prior studies have shown that individuals tend to become locked into lad casino particular course of action, by means of sequential and escalating commitments, resulting in detrimental personal decisions and many other evitable disastrous events.

After acknowledging this fundamental attribute of human behavior, it is necessary to understand if these situations arise from concrete decisional errors or lad casino just simply how the events panned out.

There is a large pool of data concerning the justification of behavior in much of the social psychological studies on forced compliance. In one such study Staw et al. Business school students lad casino asked to fill the role of corporate financial officer and allocate research lad casino development funds to either one of two divisions of a company.

Being mindful of escalating commitment to a particular course of action, especially when said actions are failing or having some kind of negative this web page on others lad casino very important.

This carefulness to avoid the aforementioned behavior can be applied to many aspects of our lad casino in the business world and in more unconventional every day situations.

For example, in lad casino Staw study mentioned above, the effects of lad casino growing need for justification was seen in a business workplace setting. In this type of environment it is ideal to make sure that none is continuing on with see more ideas lad casino because they have rationalized that somehow everything will be successful in the end.

Likewise in lad casino situations involving stocks and investment issues, recognizing when lad casino is only continuing investments out of desperate and misguided hope that things will begin to improve is essential to personal finance and well being. This understanding is not only essential to matters involving finances, but can also be applicable in any situation where lad casino disadvantageous behavior is being perpetuated when clearly it has no merit.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Please lad casino improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. November Learn how and when to remove this template message.

A theory of cognitive dissonance. Cognitive reactions to smoking relapse: The reciprocal relation between dissonance and self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72 The psychology of self-affirmation: Sustaining the integrity of the self. Advances in Experimental Social PsychologyVol. When bad things lad casino to good feedback: Exacerbating the need for self-justification with self-affirmations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23 7— Dissonance on the road: Self-esteem as a moderator of internal and external self-justification strategies.

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28 12 Effect of the severity of threat on the devaluation of forbidden behavior. Journal of Lad casino and Social Psychology, 66 6— Overcoming denial and increasing the intention to use condoms through the induction of hypocrisy. American Journal of Public Health, 81 12— Changes in moral attitudes following temptation. Journal of Personality, 26 4 Group discussion effects on conflict behavior and self-justification.

Psychological Reports, 38 1 The escalation of commitment to lad casino course of action. Academy of management Review, 6 4 Retrieved from " https: Wikipedia articles needing style editing lad casino November All articles needing style editing All articles with failed verification Articles with failed verification from September Views Read Edit View history.

This page was last edited on 27 Septemberat By using this site, you agree to the Lad casino of Use and Privacy Policy.

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